Category Archives: SQL Server

Database Free Space Monitoring – The right way


Lately I spent some time evaluating some monitoring tools for SQL Server and one thing that struck me very negatively is how none of them (to date) has been reporting database free space correctly.
I was actively evaluating one of those tools when one of my production databases ran out of space without any sort of warning.
I was so upset that I decided to code my own monitoring script.

Some things to take into account:

  • Hard set limits for file growth have to be considered: a drive with lots of space is useless if the database file cannot grow and take it.
  • If fixed growth is used, there must be enough space in the drive to accomodate the growth amount you set.
  • If percent growth is used, you have to calculate recursively how much your database file will grow before taking all the space in the drive
  • Some scripts found in blogs and books don’t account for mount points. Use sys.dm_os_volume_stats to include mount points in your calculation (unless you’re running SQL Server versions prior to 2012).
  • Database free space alone is not enough. NTFS performance start degrading when the drive free space drops below 20%. Make sure you’re monitoring that as well.
  • 20% of a huge database can be lots of space. You can change that threshold to whatever you find appropriate (for instance, less than 20% AND less than 20 GB)

That said, here is my script, I hope you find it useful.


-- create a temporary table to hold data from sys.master_files
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#masterfiles') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE #masterfiles;

CREATE TABLE #masterfiles (
    database_id int,
    type_desc varchar(10),
    name sysname,
    physical_name varchar(255),
    size_mb int,
    max_size_mb int,
    growth int,
    is_percent_growth bit,
    data_space_id int,
    data_space_name nvarchar(128) NULL,
    drive nvarchar(512),
    mbfree int
);

-- extract file information from sys.master_files
-- and correlate each file to its logical volume
INSERT INTO #masterfiles
SELECT
     mf.database_id
    ,type_desc
    ,name
    ,physical_name
    ,size_mb = size / 128
    ,max_size_mb =
        CASE
            WHEN max_size = 268435456 AND type_desc = 'LOG' THEN -1
            ELSE
                CASE
                    WHEN max_size = -1 THEN -1
                    ELSE max_size / 128
                END
        END
    ,mf.growth
    ,mf.is_percent_growth
    ,mf.data_space_id
    ,NULL
    ,d.volume_mount_point
    ,d.available_bytes / 1024 / 1024
FROM sys.master_files AS mf
CROSS APPLY sys.dm_os_volume_stats(database_id, file_id) AS d;

-- add an "emptyspace" column to hold empty space for each file
ALTER TABLE #masterfiles ADD emptyspace_mb int NULL;

-- iterate through all databases to calculate empty space for its files
DECLARE @name sysname;

DECLARE c CURSOR FORWARD_ONLY READ_ONLY STATIC LOCAL
FOR
SELECT name
FROM sys.databases
WHERE state_desc = 'ONLINE'

OPEN c
FETCH NEXT FROM c INTO @name

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN

    DECLARE @sql nvarchar(max)
    DECLARE @statement nvarchar(max)
    SET @sql = '
        UPDATE mf
        SET emptyspace_mb = size_mb - FILEPROPERTY(name,''SpaceUsed'') / 128,
            data_space_name =
                ISNULL(
                    (SELECT name FROM sys.data_spaces WHERE data_space_id = mf.data_space_id),
                    ''LOG''
                )
        FROM #masterfiles AS mf
        WHERE database_id = DB_ID();
    '
    SET @statement = 'EXEC ' + QUOTENAME(@name) + '.sys.sp_executesql @sql'
    EXEC sp_executesql @statement, N'@sql nvarchar(max)', @sql

    FETCH NEXT FROM c INTO @name
END

CLOSE c
DEALLOCATE c

-- create a scalar function to simulate the growth of the database in the drive's available space
IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..calculateAvailableSpace') IS NOT NULL
    EXEC tempdb.sys.sp_executesql N'DROP FUNCTION calculateAvailableSpace'

EXEC tempdb.sys.sp_executesql N'
CREATE FUNCTION calculateAvailableSpace(
    @diskFreeSpaceMB float,
    @currentSizeMB float,
    @growth float,
    @is_percent_growth bit
)
RETURNS int
AS
BEGIN
    IF @currentSizeMB = 0
        SET @currentSizeMB = 1
    DECLARE @returnValue int = 0
    IF @is_percent_growth = 0
    BEGIN
        SET @returnValue = (@growth /128) * CAST((@diskFreeSpaceMB / (@growth / 128)) AS int)
    END
    ELSE
    BEGIN
        DECLARE @prevsize AS float = 0
        DECLARE @calcsize AS float = @currentSizeMB
        WHILE @calcsize < @diskFreeSpaceMB
        BEGIN
            SET @prevsize = @calcsize
            SET @calcsize = @calcsize + @calcsize * @growth / 100.0
        END
        SET @returnValue = @prevsize - @currentSizeMB
        IF @returnValue < 0
            SET @returnValue = 0
    END

    RETURN @returnValue
END
'

-- report database filegroups with less than 20% available space
;WITH masterfiles AS (
    SELECT *
        ,available_space =
            CASE mf.max_size_mb
                WHEN -1 THEN tempdb.dbo.calculateAvailableSpace(mbfree, size_mb, growth, is_percent_growth)
                ELSE max_size_mb - size_mb
            END
            + emptyspace_mb
    FROM #masterfiles AS mf
),
spaces AS (
    SELECT
         DB_NAME(database_id) AS database_name
        ,data_space_name
        ,type_desc
        ,SUM(size_mb) AS size_mb
        ,SUM(available_space) AS available_space_mb
        ,SUM(available_space) * 100 /
            CASE SUM(size_mb)
                WHEN 0 THEN 1
                ELSE SUM(size_mb)
            END AS available_space_percent
    FROM masterfiles
    GROUP BY DB_NAME(database_id)
        ,data_space_name
        ,type_desc
)
SELECT *
FROM spaces
WHERE available_space_percent < 20
ORDER BY available_space_percent ASC

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#masterfiles') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE #masterfiles;

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..calculateAvailableSpace') IS NOT NULL
    EXEC tempdb.sys.sp_executesql N'DROP FUNCTION calculateAvailableSpace'

I am sure that there are smarter scripts around that calculate it correctly and I am also sure that there are other ways to obtain the same results (PowerShell, to name one). The important thing is that your script takes every important aspect into account and warns you immediately when the database space drops below your threshold, not when the available space is over.

Last time it happened to me it was a late saturday night and, while I really love my job, I can come up with many better ways to spend my saturday night.

I’m pretty sure you do as well.

Announcing ExtendedTSQLCollector


I haven’t been blogging much lately, actually I haven’t been blogging at all in the last 4 months. The reason behind is I have been putting all my efforts in a new project I started recently, which absorbed all my attention and spare time.

I am proud to announce that my project is now live and available to everyone for download.

1397849640_69471The project name is ExtendedTSQLCollector and you can find it at http://extendedtsqlcollector.codeplex.com. As you may have already guessed, it’s a bridge between two technologies that were not meant to work together, that could instead bring great advantages when combined: Extended Events and Data Collector.

ExtendedTSQLCollector is a set of two Collector Types built to overcome some of the limitations found in the built-in collector types and extend their functionality to include the ability to collect data from XE sessions.

The first Collector Type is the “Extended T-SQL Query” collector type, which was my initial goal when I started the project. If you have had the chance to play with the built-in “Generic T-SQL Query” collector type, you may have noticed that not all datatypes are supported. For instance, it’s impossible to collect data from XML or varchar(max) columns. This is due to the intermediate format used by this collector type: the SSIS raw files.

The “Extended T-SQL Query” collector type uses a different intermediate format, which allows collecting data of any data type. This is particularly useful, because SQL Server exposes lots of information in XML format (just think of the execution plans!) and you no longer need to code custom SSIS packages to collect that data.

The second Collector Type is the “Extended XE Reader” collector type, which takes advantage of the Extended Events streaming APIs to collect data from an Extended Events session, without the need to specify additional targets such as .xel files or ring buffers. This means no file system bloat due to .xel rollover files and no memory consumption for additional ring buffers: all the events are read directly from the session and processed in near real-time.

In addition to the filter predicates defined in the XE session, you can add more filter predicates on the data to collect and upload to the MDW and decide which columns (fields and actions) to collect. The collector will take care of creating the target table in your MDW database and upload all the data that satisfies the filter predicates.

The near real-time behavior of this collector type allowed me to include an additional feature to the mix: the ability to fire alerts in response to Extended Events. The current release (1.5) allows firing email alerts when the events are captured, with additional filter predicates and the ability to include event fields and actions in the email body. You can find more information on XE alerts in the documentation.

Here is an example of the email alerts generated by the XEReader collector type for the blocked_process event:

email

 

Another part of the project is the CollectionSet Manager, a GUI to install the collector types to the target servers and configure collection sets and collection items. I think that one of the reasons why the Data Collector is very underutilized by DBAs is the lack of a Graphical UI. Besides the features specific to the ExtendedTSQLCollector, such as installing the collector type, this small utility aims at providing the features missing in the SSMS Data Collector UI. This part of the project is still at an early stage, but I am planning to release it in the next few months.

My journey through the ins and outs of the Data Collector allowed me to understand deeply how it works and how to set it up and troubleshoot it. Now I am planning to start a blog series on this topic, from the basics to the advanced features. Stay tuned :-)

I don’t want to go into deep details on the setup and configuration of this small project: I just wanted to ignite your curiosity and make you rush to codeplex to download your copy of ExtendedTSQLCollector.

What are you waiting for?

Uniquifiers: all rows or the duplicate keys only?


Some days ago I was talking with my friend Davide Mauri about the uniquifier that SQL Server adds to clustered indexes when they are not declared as UNIQUE.

We were not completely sure whether this behaviour applied to duplicate keys only or to all keys, even when unique.

The best way to discover the truth is a script to test what happens behind the scenes:

-- =============================================
-- Author:      Gianluca Sartori - @spaghettidba
-- Create date: 2014-03-15
-- Description: Checks whether the UNIQUIFIER column
--              is added to a column only on
--              duplicate clustering keys or all
--              keys, regardless of uniqueness
-- =============================================

USE tempdb
GO

IF OBJECT_ID('sizeOfMyTable') IS NOT NULL
    DROP VIEW sizeOfMyTable;
GO

-- Create a view to query table size information
-- Not very elegant, but saves a lot of typing

CREATE VIEW sizeOfMyTable
AS
SELECT OBJECT_NAME(si.object_id) AS table_name,
    si.name AS index_name,
    SUM(total_pages) AS total_pages,
    SUM(used_pages) AS used_pages,
    SUM(data_pages) AS data_pages
FROM sys.partitions AS p
INNER JOIN sys.allocation_units AS AU
    ON P.hobt_id = AU.container_id
INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS si
    ON si.index_id = p.index_id
    AND si.object_id = p.object_id
WHERE si.object_id = OBJECT_ID('#testUniquifier')
GROUP BY OBJECT_NAME(si.object_id),
    si.name
GO

IF OBJECT_ID('#testUniquifier') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE #testUniquifier;

-- Create a test table

CREATE TABLE #testUniquifier (
    i int NOT NULL
)

-- Results table: will receive table size
-- in different scenarios

DECLARE @results TABLE(
    description varchar(500),
    table_name sysname,
    index_name sysname,
    total_pages int,
    used_pages int,
    data_pages int
);

-- INSERTS 100K UNIQUE VALUES

INSERT INTO #testUniquifier
SELECT TOP(100000) ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY (SELECT NULL))
FROM sys.all_columns AS AC
CROSS JOIN sys.all_columns AS AC1;

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- TEST1: CREATES A UNIQUE CLUSTERED INDEX (NO UNIQUIFIER)
-- -----------------------------------------------------------------

CREATE UNIQUE CLUSTERED INDEX UK_test ON #testUniquifier(i);

INSERT @results
SELECT 'Unique clustered index' AS description, * FROM sizeOfMyTable;

DROP INDEX UK_test ON #testUniquifier

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- TEST2: CREATES A NON-UNIQUE CLUSTERED INDEX
--        NO DUPLICATES ARE PRESENT YET
-- -----------------------------------------------------------------

CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX IX_test ON #testUniquifier(i)

INSERT @results
SELECT 'Non-Unique clustered index, no duplicates' AS description, * FROM sizeOfMyTable

DROP INDEX IX_test ON #testUniquifier

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- TEST3: CREATES A NON-UNIQUE CLUSTERED INDEX
--        10000 DUPLICATE VALUES ARE PRESENT
-- -----------------------------------------------------------------

UPDATE TOP(10000) #testUniquifier SET i = 1

CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX IX_test ON #testUniquifier(i)

INSERT @results
SELECT 'Non-Unique clustered index, some duplicates' AS description, * FROM sizeOfMyTable

DROP INDEX IX_test ON #testUniquifier

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- TEST4: CREATES A NON-UNIQUE CLUSTERED INDEX
--        ALL ROWS CONTAIN THE SAME VALUE (1)
-- -----------------------------------------------------------------

UPDATE #testUniquifier SET i = 1

CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX IX_test ON #testUniquifier(i)

INSERT @results
SELECT 'Non-Unique clustered index, all duplicates' AS description, * FROM sizeOfMyTable

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- Display results
-- -----------------------------------------------------------------

SELECT *
FROM @results;

As you can see, the uniquifier is added only to the keys that are duplicated:

uniquifier

Another way to discover the same results would be looking at the output of DBCC PAGE().

Looking at the text output of DBCC PAGE, uniquifiers are displayed as 0 (zero) when the values are not set, but the values are actually missing from the page.

This becomes even clearer when using DBCC PAGE WITH TABLERESULTS:

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#formatteddata') IS NOT NULL	
    DROP TABLE #formatteddata;

SELECT *, ROWNUM = ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY page_id, slot_id)
INTO #formatteddata
FROM #testUniquifier
CROSS APPLY sys.fn_PhysLocCracker(%%physloc%%);

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#dbccpage') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE #dbccpage;


CREATE TABLE #dbccpage (
    page_id int,
    ParentObject varchar(128),
    Object varchar(128),
    Field varchar(128),
    value varchar(4000),
    Slot AS SUBSTRING(Object, NULLIF(CHARINDEX('Slot ',Object,1),0) + 5, ISNULL(NULLIF(CHARINDEX(' ',Object,6),0),0) - 5)
)

DECLARE @current_page_id int;

DECLARE pages CURSOR STATIC LOCAL FORWARD_ONLY READ_ONLY
FOR
SELECT DISTINCT page_id 
FROM #formatteddata

OPEN pages

FETCH NEXT FROM pages INTO @current_page_id

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN 
    INSERT INTO #dbccpage (ParentObject, Object, Field, value)
    EXEC sp_executesql N'DBCC PAGE (2, 1, @pageid, 3) WITH TABLERESULTS;', N'@pageid int', @current_page_id

    UPDATE #dbccpage 
    SET page_id = @current_page_id
    WHERE page_id IS NULL

    FETCH NEXT FROM pages INTO @current_page_id
END

CLOSE pages;
DEALLOCATE pages;


WITH PageData AS  (
    SELECT page_id, slot, field, value
    FROM #dbccpage
    WHERE field IN ('i', 'UNIQUIFIER')
),
Uniquifiers AS (
    SELECT *
    FROM PageData
    PIVOT (MAX(value) FOR field IN ([i], [UNIQUIFIER])) AS pvt
),
sourceData AS (
    SELECT *
    FROM #formatteddata
)
SELECT src.ROWNUM, 
    src.i, 
    src.page_id,
    src.slot_id,
    UNIQUIFIER
FROM sourceData AS src
LEFT JOIN Uniquifiers AS unq
    ON src.slot_id = unq.slot
    AND src.page_id = unq.page_id
ORDER BY ROWNUM;

If you run the code in the different situations outlined before (unique clustered index, non-unique clustered index with or without duplicate keys) you will find the uniquifiers associated with each duplicate key and you will also notice that no uniquifier is generated for the keys that are unique.

Verdasys Digital Guardian and SQL Server


I’m writing this post as a reminder for myself and possibly to help out the poor souls that may suffer the same fate as me.

There’s a software out there called “Digital Guardian” which is a data loss protection tool. Your computer may be running this software without you knowing: your system administrators may have installed it in order to prevent users from performing operations that don’t comply to corporate policies and may lead to data loss incidents.

For instance, Digital Guardian can prevent users from writing to USB pendrives and walk out of the office with a copy of the data in their pocket. Actually, this is just one of the policies than can be enforced by Digital Guardian: it’s a complete data protection framework that offers many powerful features.

The bad news is Digital Guardian relies on an agent daemon that runs very deep in the operating system and modifies the OS behaviour based on the policies defined by the system administrators. Most of the time, the user is notified of the tool’s intervention with explicit messages, stating that the operation is not permitted by corporate policies.

Sometimes (here comes the painful part) things randomly fail without any meaningful indication that Digital Guardian is responsible of the failure. Instead of getting sensible policy violation messages, you may get generic error messages that won’t be anywhere easy to troubleshoot. Sometimes, errors are not even due to policy violations, but are caused by the modifications in  the OS behaviour introduced by Digital Guardian itself.

For instance, when installing SQL Server, you may be presented this error message:

DG_setup_error

Is the error message “No more data is available” anywhere helpful? Not really.

I spent countless hours trying to understand what went wrong and I finally understood the cause of the failure when a coworker pointed out that Digital Guardian was running on that particular server.

What happened here?

Digital Guardian clumsily tries to hide itself. If you look for it in the installed programs applet in Control Panel you won’t find it. It also tries to hide itself in the registry, so when you enumerate the registry key “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\Digital Guardian Agent” you will get an error.

In one of the early stages, SQL Server’s setup verifies what software is installed in the machine and when it encounters Digital Guardian’s registry key, it fails miserably.

The only way to get past the error is to disable Digital Guardian.

Are you comfortable with running SQL Server on a machine with such a tool installed?

OK, you managed to install SQL Server by disabling Digital Guardian: now what?

  • What if SQL Server crashes?
  • What if everything turns horribly slow?
  • What if you get data corruption?
  • What if…?

Tools that interact with the OS at such low level scare the hell out of me. Anything that you install and run on a machine with such a tool becomes completely unreliable in my opinion. SQL Server was not intended to run against a modified OS and it was not tested to run like that.

SQL Server has its own security tools. They may not be perfect, but it’s how the product was intended to work and, frankly, they’re largely sufficient for 99% of the use cases. Probably, enabling TDE is better than preventing everyone from writing to USB drives.

If you think SQL Server security features are not enough for you, go on and activate one of those pesky tools. But let me ask: are you sure that you fall in that 1% ?

Non-unique indexes that COULD be unique


In my last post I showed a query to identify non-unique indexes that should be unique.

You maybe have some other indexes that could be unique based on the data they contain, but are not.

To find out, you just need to query each of those indexes and group by the whole key, filtering out those that have duplicate values. It may look like an overwhelming amount of work, but the good news is I have a script for that:

DECLARE @sql nvarchar(max);

WITH indexes AS (
    SELECT
         QUOTENAME(OBJECT_SCHEMA_NAME(uq.object_id)) AS [schema_name]
        ,QUOTENAME(OBJECT_NAME(uq.object_id)) AS table_name
        ,uq.name AS index_name
        ,cols.name AS cols
    FROM sys.indexes AS uq
    CROSS APPLY (
        SELECT STUFF((
            SELECT ',' + QUOTENAME(sc.name) AS [text()]
            FROM sys.index_columns AS uc
            INNER JOIN sys.columns AS sc
                ON  uc.column_id = sc.column_id
                AND uc.object_id = sc.object_id
            WHERE uc.object_id = uq.object_id
                AND uc.index_id = uq.index_id
                AND uc.is_included_column = 0
            FOR XML PATH('')
        ),1,1,SPACE(0))
    ) AS cols (name)
    WHERE is_unique = 0
        AND has_filter = 0
        AND is_hypothetical = 0
        AND type IN (1,2)
        AND object_id IN (
            SELECT object_id
            FROM sys.objects
            WHERE is_ms_shipped = 0
            AND type = 'U'
        )
)
-- Build a big statement to query index data
SELECT @sql = (
    SELECT
        'SELECT ''' + [schema_name] + ''' AS [schema_name],
            ''' + table_name + ''' AS table_name,
            ''' + index_name + ''' AS index_name,
            can_be_unique =
                CASE WHEN (
                    SELECT COUNT(*)
                    FROM (
                        SELECT ' + cols + ',COUNT(*) AS cnt
                        FROM ' + [schema_name] + '.' + [table_name] + '
                        GROUP BY ' + cols + '
                        HAVING COUNT(*) > 1
                    ) AS data
                    ) > 0
                THEN 0
                ELSE 1
                END;'
    FROM indexes
    FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE
).value('.','nvarchar(max)');

-- prepare a table to receive results
DECLARE @results TABLE (
    [schema_name] sysname,
    [table_name] sysname,
    [index_name] sysname,
    [can_be_unique] bit
)

-- execute the script and pipe the results
INSERT @results
EXEC(@sql)

-- show candidate unique indexes
SELECT *
FROM @results
WHERE can_be_unique = 1
ORDER BY [schema_name], [table_name], [index_name]

The script should complete quite quickly, since you have convenient indexes in place. However, I suggest that you run it against a non production copy of your database, as it will scan all non unique indexes found in the database.

The results will include all the indexes that don’t contain duplicate data. Whether you should make those indexes UNIQUE, only you can tell.

Some indexes may contain unique data unintentionally, but could definitely store duplicate data in the future. If you know your data domain, you will be able to spot the difference.

Non-unique indexes that should be unique


Defining the appropriate primary key and unique constraints is fundamental for a good database design.

unique

One thing that I often see overlooked is that all the indexes with a key that includes completely another UNIQUE index’s key should in turn be created as UNIQUE. You could argue that such an index has probably been created by mistake, but it’s not always the case.

If you want to check your database for indexes that can be safely made UNIQUE, you can use the following script:

SELECT OBJECT_SCHEMA_NAME(uq.object_id) AS [schema_name],
    OBJECT_NAME(uq.object_id) AS table_name,
    uq.name AS unique_index_name,
    nui.name AS non_unique_index_name
FROM sys.indexes AS uq
CROSS APPLY (
    SELECT name, object_id, index_id
    FROM sys.indexes AS nui
    WHERE nui.object_id = uq.object_id
        AND nui.index_id <> uq.index_id
        AND nui.is_unique = 0
        AND nui.has_filter = 0
        AND nui.is_hypothetical = 0
) AS nui
WHERE is_unique = 1
    AND has_filter = 0
    AND is_hypothetical = 0
    AND uq.object_id IN (
        SELECT object_id
        FROM sys.tables
    )
    AND NOT EXISTS (

        SELECT column_id
        FROM sys.index_columns AS uc
        WHERE uc.object_id = uq.object_id
            AND uc.index_id = uq.index_id
            AND uc.is_included_column = 0

        EXCEPT

        SELECT column_id
        FROM sys.index_columns AS nuic
        WHERE nuic.object_id = nui.object_id
            AND nuic.index_id = nui.index_id
            AND nuic.is_included_column = 0

    )
ORDER BY [schema_name], table_name, unique_index_name

You may wonder why you should bother making those indexes UNIQUE.

The answer is that constraints help the optimizer building better execution plans. Marking an index as UNIQUE tells the optimizer that one and just one row can be found for each key value: it’s a valuable information that can actually help estimating the correct cardinality.

Does the script return any rows? Make those indexes UNIQUE, you’ll thank me later.

SQL Server Agent in Express Edition


As you probably know, SQL Server Express doesn’t ship with SQL Server Agent.

This is a known limitation and many people offered alternative solutions to schedule jobs, including windows scheduler, free and commercial third-party applications.

My favourite SQL Server Agent replacement to date is Denny Cherry‘s Standalone SQL Agent, for two reasons:

  1. It uses msdb tables to read job information.
    This means that jobs, schedules and the like can be scripted using the same script you would use in the other editions.
  2. It’s open source and it was started by a person I highly respect.

However, while I still find it a great piece of software, there are a couple of downsides to take into account:

  1. It’s still a beta version and the project hasn’t been very active lately.
  2. There’s no GUI tool to edit jobs or monitor job progress.
  3. It fails to install when UAC is turned on
  4. It’s not 100% compatible with SQL Server 2012
  5. It doesn’t restart automatically when the SQL Server instance starts
  6. It requires sysadmin privileges

The UAC problem during installation is easy to solve: open an elevated command prompt and run the installer msi. Easy peasy.

As far as SQL Server 2012 is concerned, the service fails to start when connected to a 2012 instance. In the ERRORLOG file (the one you find in the Standalone SQL Agent directory, not SQL Server’s) you’ll quickly find the reason of the failure: it can’t create the stored procedure sp_help_job_SSA. I don’t know why this happens: I copied the definition of the stored procedure from a 2008 instance and it worked fine.

If you don’t have a SQL Server 2008 instance available, you can extract the definition of the stored procedure from the source code at CodePlex.

Issue 5) is a bit more tricky to tackle. When the service loses the connection to the target SQL Server instance, it won’t restart automatically and it will remain idle until you cycle the service manually. In the ERRORLOG file you’ll find a message that resembles to this:

Error connecting to SQL Instance.
No connection attempt will be made until Sevice is restarted.

You can overcome this limitation using a startup stored procedure that restarts the service:

USE master
GO

EXEC sp_configure 'advanced',1
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE

EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell',1
RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE
GO

USE master
GO

CREATE PROCEDURE startStandaloneSQLAgent
AS
BEGIN
    SET NOCOUNT ON;

    EXEC xp_cmdshell 'net stop "Standalone SQL Agent"'
    EXEC xp_cmdshell 'net start "Standalone SQL Agent"'

END
GO

EXEC sp_procoption @ProcName = 'startStandaloneSQLAgent'
      , @OptionName = 'startup'
      , @OptionValue = 'on';
 GO

However, you’ll probably notice that the SQL Server service account does not have sufficient rights to restart the service.

The following PowerShell script grants the SQL Server service account all the rights it needs. In order to run it, you need to download the code available at Rohn Edwards’ blog.

# Change to the display name of your SQL Server Express service
$service = Get-WmiObject win32_service |
	where-object { $_.DisplayName -eq "SQL Server (SQLEXPRESS2008R2)" }

$serviceLogonAccount = $service.StartName

$ServiceAcl = Get-ServiceAcl "Standalone SQL Agent"
$ServiceAcl.Access

# Add an ACE allowing the service user Start and Stop service rights:
$ServiceAcl.AddAccessRule((New-AccessControlEntry -ServiceRights "Start,Stop" -Principal $serviceLogonAccount))

# Apply the modified ACL object to the service:
$ServiceAcl | Set-ServiceAcl

# Confirm the ACE was saved:
Get-ServiceAcl "Standalone SQL Agent" | select -ExpandProperty Access

After running this script from an elevated Powershell instance, you can test whether the startup stored procedure has enough privileges by invoking it manually.

If everything works as expected, you can restart the SQL Server Express instance and the Standalone SQL Agent service will restart as well.

In conclusion, Standalone SQL Agent is a good replacement for SQL Server Agent in Express edition and, while it suffers from some limitations, I still believe it’s the best option available.

COPY_ONLY backups and Log Shipping


Last week I was in the process of migrating a couple of SQL Server instances from 2008 R2 to 2012.

In order to let the migration complete quickly, I set up log shipping from the old instance to the new instance. Obviously, the existing backup jobs had to be disabled, otherwise they would have broken the log chain.

That got me thinking: was there a way to keep both “regular” transaction log backups (taken by the backup tool) and the transaction log backups taken by log shipping?

 ls_architecture

The first thing that came to my mind was the COPY_ONLY option available since SQL Server 2005.

You probably know that COPY_ONLY backups are useful when you have to take a backup for a special purpose, for instance when you have to restore from production to test. With the COPY_ONLY option, database backups don’t break the differential base and transaction log backups don’t break the log chain.

My initial thought was that I could ship COPY_ONLY backups to the secondary and keep taking scheduled transaction log backups with the existing backup tools.

I was dead wrong.

Let’s see it with an example on a TEST database.

I took 5 backups:

  1. FULL database backup, to initialize the log chain. Please note that COPY_ONLY backups cannot be used to initialize the log chain.
  2. LOG backup
  3. LOG backup with the COPY_ONLY option
  4. LOG backup
  5. LOG backup with the COPY_ONLY option

The backup information can be queried from backupset in msdb:

SELECT
     ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY bs.backup_start_date) AS [backup #]
    ,first_lsn
    ,last_lsn
    ,backup_start_date
    ,type
    ,is_copy_only
    ,DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY type, bs.first_lsn) AS sequence
FROM msdb.dbo.backupset bs
WHERE bs.database_name = 'TEST'

 backupsets

As you can see, the COPY_ONLY backups don’t truncate the transaction log and losing one of those backups wouldn’t break the log chain.

However, all backups always start from the first available LSN, which means that scheduled log backups taken without the COPY_ONLY option truncate the transaction log and make significant portions of the transaction log unavailable in the next COPY_ONLY backup.

You can see it clearly in the following picture: the LSNs highlighted in red should contain no gaps in order to be restored successfully to the secondary, but the regular TLOG backups break the log chain in the COPY_ONLY backups.

backupsets2

That means that there’s little or no point in taking COPY_ONLY transaction log backups, as “regular” backups will always determine gaps in the log chain.

When log shipping is used, the secondary server is the only backup you can have, unless you keep the TLOG backups or use your backup tool directly to ship the logs.

Why on earth should one take a COPY_ONLY TLOG backup (more than one at least) is beyond my comprehension, but that’s a whole different story.

Open SSMS Query Results in Excel with a Single Click


The problem

One of the tasks that I often have to complete is manipulate some data in Excel, starting from the query results in SSMS.

Excel is a very convenient tool for one-off reports, quick data manipulation, simple charts.

Unfortunately, SSMS doesn’t ship with a tool to export grid results to Excel quickly.

Excel offers some ways to import data from SQL queries, but none of those offers the rich query tools available in SSMS. A representative example is Microsoft Query: how am I supposed to edit a query in a text editor like this?

MSQuery

Enough said.

Actually, there are many ways to export data from SQL Server to Excel, including SSIS packages and the Import/Export wizard. Again, all those methods require writing your queries in a separate tool, often with very limited editing capabilities.

PowerQuery offers great support for data exploration, but it is a totally different beast and I don’t see it as an alternative to running SQL queries directly.

The solution

How can I edit my queries taking advantage of the query editing features of SSMS, review the results and then format the data directly in Excel?

The answer is SSMS cannot do that, but, fortunately, the good guys at Solutions Crew brought you a great tool that can do that and much more.

SSMSBoost is a free add-in that empowers SSMS with many useful features, among which exporting to Excel is just one. I highly suggest that you check out the feature list, because it’s really impressive.

Once SSMSBoost is installed, every time you right click a results grid, a context menu appears that lets you export the grid data to several formats.

No surprises, one of those formats is indeed Excel.

SSMSBoostExportExcel

The feature works great, even with relatively big result sets. However, it requires 5 clicks to create the Spreadsheet file and one more click to open it in Excel:

SSMSBoostOpenFile

So, where is the single click I promised in the title of this post?

The good news is that SSMSBoost can be automated combining commands in macros to accomplish complex tasks.

Here’s how to create a one-click “open in Excel” command:

First, open the SSMSBoost settings window clicking the “Extras” button.

SSMSBoostSettingsMenu

In the “Shortcuts & Macros” tab you can edit and add macros to the toolbar or the context menu and even assign a keyboard shortcut.

SSMSBoostSettingsWindow

Clicking the “definitions” field opens the macro editor

SSMSBoostEditDefinition

Select “Add” and choose the following command: “SSMSBoost.Connect.GridDataCopyTemplateAllGridsDisk3”. This command corresponds to the “Script all grids as Excel to disk” command in SSMSBoost.

Now save everything with OK and close. You will notice a new button in your toolbar:

SSMSScriptToExcelButton

That button allows to export all grids to Excel in a single click.

You’re almost there: now you just need something to open the Excel file automatically, without the need for additional clicks.

To accomplish this task, you can use a Powershell script, bound to a custom External Tool.

Open the External Tools editor (Tools, External Tools), click “Add” and type these parameters:

Title: Open last XML in Excel

Command: C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe

Arguments: -File %USERPROFILE%\openLastExcel.ps1 -ExecutionPolicy Bypass

SSMSBoostEditDefinition2

Click OK to close the External Tools editor.

This command lets you open the last XML file created in the SSMSBoost output directory, using a small Powershell script that you have to create in your %USERPROFILE% directory.

The script looks like this:

## =============================================
## Author:      Gianluca Sartori - @spaghettidba
## Create date: 2014-01-15
## Description: Open the last XML file in the SSMSBoost
##              output dicrectory with Excel
## =============================================

sl $env:UserProfile

# This is the SSMSBoost 2012 settings file
# If you have the 2008 version, change this path
# Sorry, I could not find a registry key to automate it.
$settingsFile = "$env:UserProfile\AppData\Local\Solutions Crew\Ssms2012\SSMSBoostSettings.xml"

# Open the settings file to look up the export directory
$xmldata=[xml](get-content $settingsFile)

$xlsTemplate = $xmldata.SSMSBoostSettings.GridDataCopyTemplates.ChildNodes |
    Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "Excel (MS XML Spreadsheet)" }

$SSMSBoostPath = [System.IO.Path]::GetDirectoryName($xlsTemplate.SavePath)

$SSMSBoostPath = [System.Environment]::ExpandEnvironmentVariables($SSMSBoostPath)

# we filter out files created before (now -1 second)
$startTime = (get-date).addSeconds(-1);

$targetFile = $null;

while($targetFile -eq $null){
    $targetFile = Get-ChildItem -Path $SSMSBoostPath |
        Where-Object { $_.extension -eq '.xml' -and $_.lastWriteTime -gt $startTime } |
        Sort-Object -Property LastWriteTime |
        Select-Object -Last 1;

    # file not found? Wait SSMSBoost to finish exporting
    if($targetFile -eq $null) {
        Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
    }
};

$fileToOpen = $targetFile.FullName

# enclose the output file path in quotes if needed
if($fileToOpen -like "* *"){
    $fileToOpen = "`"" + $fileToOpen + "`""
}

# open the file in Excel
# ShellExecute is much safer than messing with COM objects...
$sh = new-object -com 'Shell.Application'
$sh.ShellExecute('excel', "/r " + $fileToOpen, '', 'open', 1)

Now you just have to go back to the SSMSBoost settings window and edit the macro you created above.

SSMSBoostEditDefinition3

In the definitions field click … to edit the macro and add a second step. The Command to select is “Tools.ExternalCommand1”.

Save and close everything and now your nice toolbar button will be able to open the export file in Excel automagically. Yay!

OpenInExcel

Troubleshooting

If nothing happens, you might need to change your Powershell Execution Policy. Remember that SSMS is a 32-bit application and you have to set the Execution Policy for the x86 version of Powershell.

Starting Powershell x86 is not easy in Windows 8/8.1, The documentation says to look up “Windows Powershell (x86)” in the start menu, but I could not find it.

The easiest way I have found is through another External Tool in SSMS. Start SSMS as an Administrator (otherwise the UAC will prevent you from changing the Execution Policy) and configure an external tool to run Powershell. Once you’re in, type “Set-ExecutionPolicy Remotesigned” and hit return. The external tool in your macro will now run without issues.

Bottom line

Nothing compares to SSMS when it comes down to writing queries, but Excel is the best place to format and manipulate data.

Now you have a method to take advantage of the best of both worlds. And it only takes one single click.

Enjoy.

Copy user databases to a different server with PowerShell


Sometimes you have to copy all user databases from a source server to a destination server.

Copying from development to test could be one reason, but I’m sure there are others.

Since the question came up on the forums at SQLServerCentral, I decided to modify a script I published some months ago to accomplish this task.

Here is the code:

## =============================================
## Author:      Gianluca Sartori - @spaghettidba
## Create date: 2013-10-07
## Description: Copy user databases to a destination
##              server
## =============================================
cls
sl "c:\"
$ErrorActionPreference = "Stop"

# Input your parameters here
$source = "SourceServer\Instance"
$sourceServerUNC = "SourceServer"
$destination = "DestServer\Instance"

# Shared folder on the destination server
# For instance "\\DestServer\D$"
$sharedFolder = "\\DestServer\sharedfolder"
# Path to the shared folder on the destination server
# For instance "D:"
$remoteSharedFolder = "PathOfSharedFolderOnDestServer"

$ts = Get-Date -Format yyyyMMdd

#
# Read default backup path of the source from the registry
#

$SQL_BackupDirectory = @"
    EXEC master.dbo.xp_instance_regread
        N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE',
        N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer',
        N'BackupDirectory'
"@

$info = Invoke-sqlcmd -Query $SQL_BackupDirectory -ServerInstance $source

$BackupDirectory = $info.Data

#
# Read master database files location
#
$SQL_Defaultpaths = "
    SELECT *
    FROM (
        SELECT type_desc,
            SUBSTRING(physical_name,1,LEN(physical_name) - CHARINDEX('\', REVERSE(physical_name)) + 1) AS physical_name
        FROM master.sys.database_files
    ) AS src
    PIVOT( MIN(physical_name) FOR type_desc IN ([ROWS],[LOG])) AS pvt
"

$info = Invoke-sqlcmd -Query $SQL_Defaultpaths -ServerInstance $destination

$DefaultData = $info.ROWS
$DefaultLog = $info.LOG

#
# Process all user databases
#
$SQL_FullRecoveryDatabases = @"
    SELECT name
    FROM master.sys.databases
    WHERE name NOT IN ('master', 'model', 'tempdb', 'msdb', 'distribution')
"@

$info = Invoke-sqlcmd -Query $SQL_FullRecoveryDatabases -ServerInstance $source

$info | ForEach-Object {

    try {

        $DatabaseName = $_.Name

        Write-Output "Processing database $DatabaseName"

        $BackupFile = $DatabaseName + "_" + $ts + ".bak"
        $BackupPath = $BackupDirectory + "\" + $BackupFile
        $RemoteBackupPath = $remoteSharedFolder + "\" + $BackupFile

        $SQL_BackupDatabase = "BACKUP DATABASE $DatabaseName TO DISK='$BackupPath' WITH INIT, COPY_ONLY, COMPRESSION;"

        #
        # Backup database to local path
        #
        Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query $SQL_BackupDatabase -ServerInstance $source -QueryTimeout 65535

        Write-Output "Database backed up to $BackupPath"

        $BackupPath = $BackupPath

        $BackupFile = [System.IO.Path]::GetFileName($BackupPath)

        $SQL_RestoreDatabase = "
            RESTORE DATABASE $DatabaseName
            FROM DISK='$RemoteBackupPath'
            WITH RECOVERY, REPLACE,
        "

        $SQL_RestoreFilelistOnly = "
            RESTORE FILELISTONLY
            FROM DISK='$RemoteBackupPath';
        "

        #
        # Move the backup to the destination
        #

        $remotesourcefile = $BackupPath.Substring(1, 2)
        $remotesourcefile = $BackupPath.Replace($remotesourcefile, $remotesourcefile.replace(":","$"))
        $remotesourcefile = "\\" + $sourceServerUNC + "\" + $remotesourcefile

        Write-Output "Moving $remotesourcefile to $sharedFolder"
        Move-Item $remotesourcefile $sharedFolder -Force

        #
        # Restore the backup on the destination
        #
        $i = 0
        Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query $SQL_RestoreFilelistOnly -ServerInstance $destination -QueryTimeout 65535 | ForEach-Object {
            $currentRow = $_
            $physicalName = [System.IO.Path]::GetFileName($CurrentRow.PhysicalName)
            if($CurrentRow.Type -eq "D") {
                $newName = $DefaultData + $physicalName
            }
            else {
                $newName = $DefaultLog + $physicalName
            }
            if($i -gt 0) {$SQL_RestoreDatabase += ","}
            $SQL_RestoreDatabase += " MOVE '$($CurrentRow.LogicalName)' TO '$NewName'"
            $i += 1
        }

        Write-Output "invoking restore command: $SQL_RestoreDatabase"
        Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query $SQL_RestoreDatabase -ServerInstance $destination -QueryTimeout 65535
        Write-Output "Restored database from $RemoteBackupPath"

        #
        # Delete the backup file
        #
        Write-Output "Deleting $($sharedFolder + "\" + $BackupFile) "
        Remove-Item $($sharedFolder + "\" + $BackupFile) -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    }
    catch {
       Write-Error $_
    }

}

It’s a quick’n’dirty script, I’m sure there might be something to fix here and there.  Just drop a comment if you find something.

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